Rock Discoveries

Wyoming’s Hidden Gems: A Look at the State’s Unique Minerals and Gemstones

Wyoming is a state that is known for its rugged terrain, vast open spaces, and rich history. However, many people are not aware of the state’s potential when it comes to gemstones and minerals.

In this article, we will take a closer look at some of the different types of rocks found in Wyoming, access to old formations, rare gemstones and minerals, as well as significant mineral production.

Rock Types

Wyoming is home to a variety of rock types, including igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling of magma or lava, metamorphic rocks are formed from the alteration of existing rocks due to heat and pressure, while sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of sediments over time.

Access to Old Rock Formations

Wyoming is home to some of the oldest rock formations on earth. In fact, some of the rocks in Wyoming are over 3.2 billion years old.

This makes Wyoming a unique location for geologists and rock enthusiasts to explore and study.

Rare Gemstones and Minerals

Wyoming is known for several rare gemstones and minerals. One of the most notable is Nephrite Jade, which is also the state’s official gemstone since 1967.

Jade is a beautiful mineral that has many healing properties. It is believed to help with kidney function, improve emotional balance, and enhance spiritual awareness.

Another rare gemstone found in Wyoming is Agate. Agate is a type of chalcedony that is characterized by its banded appearance.

It is commonly found in volcanic rocks and is renowned for its beauty. Finally, Wyoming is known for Fire

Opals, which are unique due to their play of color.

These gemstones are highly valued for their rarity and beauty.

Significant Mineral Production in Wyoming

In addition to its gemstones and rare minerals, Wyoming is also a significant producer of several important minerals. One of these is Bentonite, which is a type of clay that is used in many industries, from oil and gas production to cosmetics.

Wyoming produces about 70% of the world’s supply of Bentonite. Another significant mineral produced in Wyoming is


This mineral is used in a variety of industries, including construction and agriculture. Wyoming is one of the leading producers of

Gypsum in the United States.

Nephrite Jade (Wyoming Jade)

Nephrite Jade is a beautiful and unique gemstone that is also the official state gemstone of Wyoming. It is composed of calcium magnesium silicate and has a Mohs hardness of 6.5 to 7.0. It is known for its distinct green hue and its durability.

One of the most interesting characteristics of Nephrite Jade is its micro-felted aggregate structure. This means that the mineral is made up of small, interlocking fibers that give it strength and resilience.

This makes it much harder than other minerals of similar composition. Nephrite Jade also has many healing properties.

It is believed to help with kidney function and can be used to treat diseases of the urinary system. It is also thought to promote emotional balance and enhance spiritual awareness.


Wyoming is a state that is full of hidden gems, both literally and figuratively. Its unique geology and history make it an interesting place for rock enthusiasts and gemstone collectors alike.

Whether you are interested in rare gemstones or just want to learn more about the state’s rich mineral resources, Wyoming is a great place to explore. So next time you find yourself in the Cowboy State, be sure to take a closer look at its gemstones and minerals.


Trona is an evaporative mineral that is found abundantly in the Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming. This mineral is composed mainly of sodium sesquicarbonate and is an essential component in several industries, including chemical manufacturing, glass production, and food processing.

Global Production

Trona is widely available and is produced in several countries around the world. However, the vast majority of the world’s trona supply is found in Wyoming, where it accounts for nearly 38% of global production.

The Green River Formation is estimated to contain over 127 billion tons of trona, making it a valuable resource for the state’s economy and an important contributor to the global supply.

Location and Formation

The Green River Formation is a geological formation found in southwestern Wyoming. It is composed of several layers of sedimentary rock that were deposited over millions of years.

Trona is formed in the shallow lake beds of the formation, where it crystallizes from the highly concentrated saltwater that is left behind after the evaporation of the lake’s water. Over time, this process results in thick layers of trona that can be mined and processed for commercial use.


Trona has several important uses in industry. One of its main applications is in the production of soda ash, which is a key ingredient in several industrial processes.

Trona is also used as a raw material in the production of glass, detergents, and water conditioners. Additionally, trona is used as a food additive to regulate pH levels and improve the texture of certain foods.


Peridot is a beautiful green gemstone that was discovered in Wyoming in 1997. This gemstone is composed of magnesium iron silicate and is notable for its double refraction, which gives it a unique optical property.

Discovery in Wyoming

Peridot was first discovered in Wyoming in the Leucite Hills, a remote area of the state known for its unusual rock formations and mineral deposits. The discovery was made by a local geologist who noticed peridot crystals near anthills.

Over time, more peridot was discovered in the area, and it soon became known as a major source of high-quality peridot.

Chemical Properties and


Peridot is a hard gemstone that has a Mohs hardness of 6.5 to 7.0. It has a distinctive green coloration that ranges from a pale green to a rich olive green.

Peridot is also notable for its double refraction, which is a phenomenon where light passing through the crystal is split into two separate rays that travel at different speeds.

This property gives peridot its unique optical properties and contributes to its beauty as a gemstone.

Meteoritic Origins

While peridot is most commonly found in volcanic rocks and tectonic settings, it can also be found in fallen meteorites. In fact, scientists have discovered peridot grains that are believed to have originated from outer space.

These grains are thought to have been formed in the early stages of the solar system and were brought to Earth by meteorite impacts.


Trona and peridot are two fascinating minerals that are found in abundance in Wyoming.

Trona is an important resource for several industries, while peridot is a valuable gemstone that has captured the attention of mineral enthusiasts and jewelry makers alike.

Through exploration and continued scientific research, we are sure to discover even more unique mineral resources in Wyoming and beyond.


Copper is a versatile metal that has several critical industrial applications. The state of Wyoming has an abundance of copper deposits, with several mines being located in the Sierra Madre Mountain range, Absaroka Mountains, and Laramie Mountains.

The Ferris-Haggarty Mine, located in the Sierra Madre Mountain range, is one of the significant copper mines in Wyoming.

Abundance in Wyoming

Copper is an abundant mineral in Wyoming, with various deposits located throughout the state.

Copper deposition in Wyoming is often associated with hydrothermal activity and can be found in different geologic settings.

Copper deposits in Wyoming are usually found in conjunction with volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks, and folded mountain belts.

Salts and Variations

Copper in Wyoming is found in different forms, including carbonates, oxides, and sulfides. Carbonate minerals, such as malachite and azurite, are two of the most common copper minerals found in Wyoming.

Copper sulfides, such as chalcopyrite and bornite, are also found in significant quantities in Wyoming.


Copper is an essential mineral that has several critical applications. One of its primary applications is as wiring in electronics and electrical systems.

Copper’s thermal and electrical conductivity make it an ideal material for this application.

Copper is also used to make cookware, fungicides, and medicine.

In addition, copper is commonly used in jewelry and decorative art, thanks to its unique luster and color.

Copper pigments are also used as a coloring agent in paints.


Opal is a beautiful mineral that is prized for its unique optical properties. Wyoming is home to several variations of opal, including the Cedar Ridge opal and the Wyoming Fire


Wyoming Variations

The Cedar Ridge opal is a black opal that is found in the southern part of Wyoming. This opal features a black body color with a range of flashes, including red, orange, and green.

The Wyoming Fire

Opal is another variation that is known for its intense orange to red color. This opal is found in several locations throughout Wyoming.

Formation and


Opal is formed by the deposition of silica gel, which is a hydrated silicate that is deposited in fissures and cavities. Trace impurities, such as iron and manganese, contribute to the coloration of opals.

Opals vary in hardness, with some being as soft as 5.5 on the Mohs scale, while others are as hard as 6.5.

Opals are known for their unique optical properties, including their play of color, which is a phenomenon where the gemstone appears to change color when viewed from different angles.

Opals are also notable for their iridescence, which is a phenomenon where the gemstone appears to shimmer and change color under different light sources.

Romans’ Precious Gemstone

Opal has been valued as a precious gemstone since ancient times. The Romans were particularly fond of opals and believed that they had powers of foresight and prophecy.

In the Middle Ages, opals were thought to bring good luck and were often worn as a talisman.


Wyoming is home to a wide variety of valuable minerals, including copper and opal. These minerals have critical applications in several industries and are also prized for their aesthetic qualities.

Through continued exploration and scientific research, we are sure to discover even more valuable mineral resources in Wyoming and beyond.


Iron is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth’s crust, and Wyoming is no exception. The state is home to several iron deposits, including the Rawlins and South Pass areas.

Iron is a critical component in both ancient and modern times for tools and weapons, as well as in building construction.

Abundance in Wyoming

Wyoming has several iron deposits, including the Rawlins and South Pass areas. The South Pass greenstone belt, which stretches across the central part of the state, contains numerous iron deposits.

The Rawlins area, on the other hand, has several iron deposits in the form of magnetite and hematite. These deposits have been mined extensively in the past for their iron content.

Historical Significance

Iron has played a significant role in human history. In ancient times, the

Iron Age dramatically transformed human society.

Iron was used to create tools and weapons that were more durable and efficient than those made from earlier materials, such as bronze. The ability to produce wrought iron and steel changed society significantly and opened up new possibilities for technology and economic development.


Iron is an essential mineral that has several important uses. One of its primary applications is in building construction.

Iron is used to create steel, which is a critical component in many construction projects, from bridges to skyscrapers.

Iron is also used to make tools and machines, making it indispensable in manufacturing and industry.

Iron is also used in the dietary supplement industry, as it is necessary for hemoglobin, which transports oxygen throughout the body.


Gypsum is a soft mineral that is composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. This mineral has a distinctive chalk-like appearance and is used in several applications, including construction, ornamental pieces, and agriculture.

Ancient Associations and


Gypsum has been used for thousands of years and was even mentioned in ancient Egyptian texts thousands of years ago. The Egyptians used gypsum in the production of plaster, which was used extensively in the construction of their pyramids.

Gypsum is still used today in the construction industry, primarily in the form of drywall. This mineral is also used in agriculture as a soil amendment and fertilizer.

Physical Properties

Gypsum is a soft mineral that has a Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2. It has a smooth, translucent appearance and is often used in ornamental pieces.

Due to its softness, gypsum is not suitable for use in tools or machinery. However, its unique physical properties make it an ideal material for ornamental pieces and decorative items.

Wyoming Sources

Wyoming is home to several sources of high-quality gypsum. The Laramie Mountains and the Bighorn Basin are two of the most significant sources of this mineral in the state.

In 2017, over half a million tons of gypsum were produced in Wyoming, making it one of the country’s leading producers of this mineral.


Iron and gypsum are two important minerals that are found abundantly in Wyoming. They have critical applications in several industries, including construction, ornamentation, and agriculture.

Through continued exploration and scientific research, we are sure to discover even more valuable mineral resources in Wyoming and beyond.


Diamond is one of the hardest and most valuable minerals in the world. It has a Mohs hardness of 10, making it the hardest natural substance known to man.

Diamonds are formed under extreme pressure and temperature in the Earth’s mantle and are unique due to their pure carbon composition.

Mohs Hardness and Formation

Diamonds are formed in the Earth’s mantle at pressures of over 725,000 pounds per square inch and temperatures of over 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these extreme conditions, diamonds are incredibly hard and durable.

Synthetic diamonds can also be produced in a lab but are not as valuable since they are not naturally occurring.

Wyoming Sources

Wyoming has several diamond deposits, including the Laramie Mountains and the Cedar Mountains. These areas are known for their kimberlite pipes, which are the primary source of diamonds.

The largest diamond found in Wyoming weighed over 6 carats.


Diamonds are unique due to their pure carbon composition and crystalline structure. They are typically colorless, but can also appear in a range of colors, including red, pink, blue, and yellow.

Diamonds are highly valued for their beauty and rarity, and are often used in jewelry and other decorative items.


Bentonite is a special type of clay that is

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